Term: Multistorey car park

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**History and Development of Multistorey Car Parks:**
– First multistorey car park opened in London in May 1901
– Introduction of another location in London in 1902 for 230 vehicles
– First parking garage in the US built in 1918 in Chicago
– Capital Garage in Washington, D.C. built in 1927
– London abolished minimum parking requirements

**Design and Structural Aspects of Multistorey Car Parks:**
– Movement between floors via ramps, lifts, or automated systems
– Long spans for car parking in parking structures
– Podium parking common below high-rise buildings
– Underground parking becoming popular for residential and business properties
– Toronto has one of the world’s largest underground parking structures
– Parking structures must withstand heavy loads of moving vehicles
– Expansion joints used for thermal expansion
– Costs for parking garages in the US estimated at $25,000 per space
– Low ceiling clearances in some parking structures can restrict access for large vehicles

**Usage and Innovations in Multistorey Car Parks:**
– Serve cars, motorcycles, and bicycles
– Can be heated if enclosed
– Design can add significant cost to new developments
– Some cities have abolished minimum parking requirements
– Parking structures can be part of larger buildings or adjacent to shopping centers
– Some parking garages without mixed use provide additional uses for the roof area
– Structural systems in the US for long-span structures include concrete floor systems

**Construction and Architectural Value of Multistorey Car Parks:**
– Utilization of precast concrete parts in construction
– Transportation and features to improve structure strength
– Architectural value varies with exceptional designs like 1111 Lincoln Road and Preston bus station
– Varied opinions on architectural significance
– Different terms used in various regions for multistorey car parks

**Technological Advancements and Future Trends in Multistorey Car Parks:**
– Automated parking systems and their history
– Modern technologies like sensors and LED indicators
– Online booking services for finding parking spaces
– Recent developments in Vehicles Detection and Count Systems
– Importance of Revenue Control Systems for parking management
– Education and research resources related to parking structures

A multistorey car park (Commonwealth English) or parking garage (American English), also called a multistorey, parking building, parking structure, parkade (mainly Canadian), parking ramp, parking deck, or indoor parking, is a building designed for car, motorcycle, and bicycle parking in which parking takes place on more than one floor or level. The first known multistorey facility was built in London in 1901, and the first underground parking was built in Barcelona in 1904. (See History, below.) The term multistorey (or multistory) is almost never used in the US, because almost all parking structures have multiple parking levels. Parking structures may be heated if they are enclosed.

Entrance to the parking garage of the Aquarium of the Pacific

A multistorey car park in Hradec Králové
Parking garage in Sweden

Design of parking structures can add considerable cost for planning new developments, with costs in the United States around $28,000 per space and $56,000 per space for underground (excluding the cost of land), and can be required by cities in parking mandates for new buildings. Some cities such as London have abolished previously enacted minimum parking requirements. Minimum parking requirements are a hallmark of zoning and planning codes for municipalities in the US. (States do not prescribe parking requirements, while counties and cities can).

Concrete Leveling Solutions