Term: Construction

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**Construction History and Evolution:**
– From hand-built huts to professional craftsmen in the Bronze Age
– Emergence of guilds in the Middle Ages
– Introduction of steam-powered machinery in the 19th century
– Fast-track construction methods in the 21st century

**Construction Industry Sectors:**
– Buildings (residential and non-residential), infrastructure, and industrial sectors
– Infrastructure projects include public works like dams and bridges
– Industrial construction involves energy installations and manufacturing plants
– Industry sectors classified by publications like ENR

**Construction Processes and Operations:**
– Small projects vs. complex projects
– Compliance with local regulations and codes
– Multi-disciplinary expertise required for complex projects
– Various procurement methods like design-bid-build and design-build

**Construction Project Lifecycle:**
– Planning and obtaining necessary permissions
– Financial management and legal considerations
– Commissioning and handover processes
– Defects liability period and maintenance, repair, and improvement

**Construction Industry Statistics and Trends:**
– Construction GVA by country (China, US, Japan, India, Germany)
– Employment statistics in the US construction sector
– Construction sector contribution to GDP in various countries
– Productivity challenges, growth rates, market values, and safety concerns in the construction industry

Construction (Wikipedia)

Construction is a general term meaning the art and science of forming objects, systems, or organizations. It comes from the Latin word constructio (from com- "together" and struere "to pile up") and Old French construction. To 'construct' is a verb: the act of building, and the noun is construction: how something is built or the nature of its structure.

Construction site and equipment prepared for start of work in Cologne, Germany (2017)

In its most widely used context, construction covers the processes involved in delivering buildings, infrastructure, industrial facilities, and associated activities through to the end of their life. It typically starts with planning, financing, and design that continues until the asset is built and ready for use. Construction also covers repairs and maintenance work, any works to expand, extend and improve the asset, and its eventual demolition, dismantling or decommissioning.

The construction industry contributes significantly to many countries' gross domestic products (GDP). Global expenditure on construction activities was about $4 trillion in 2012. In 2022, expenditure on the construction industry exceeded $11 trillion a year, equivalent to about 13 percent of global GDP. This spending was forecasted to rise to around $14.8 trillion in 2030.

The construction industry promotes economic development and brings many non-monetary benefits to many countries, but it is one of the most hazardous industries. For example, about 20% (1,061) of US industry fatalities in 2019 happened in construction.

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