Term: Compressive strength

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**1. Fundamental Concepts of Compressive Strength:**
– Tension and compression are fundamental concepts in mechanics.
– Atoms in solids experience forces that resist tension and compression.
– Strain is the relative change in length under applied stress.
– Compressive strength is crucial for designing structures.
– The compressive strength of a material is determined through a compressive test.

**2. Stress Analysis and Comparison:**
– Deviation of engineering stress from true stress.
– Calculation of compressive strength using engineering stress may lead to inaccuracies.
– Comparison of compressive and tensile strengths.
– Metals exhibit different failure modes in tension and compression.
– Tensile and compressive strengths vary across different materials and composites.

**3. Failure Modes and Influences:**
– Compressive failure modes.
– High slenderness ratio can lead to buckling failure in compression.
– Ductile and brittle materials exhibit different failure behaviors.
– Confining pressure influences the failure mode of brittle materials in compression.
– Microcracks and their impact on compressive strength.

**4. Measurement and Testing:**
– Measurement and analysis of compressive strength.
– Compressive strength is measured using a universal testing machine.
– Test methods and conditions impact compressive strength measurements.
– Compressive strengths are reported in relation to specific technical standards.
– Testing standards and methods for assessing compressive strength.

**5. Specific Applications and Further Research:**
– Microcracking and its role in material failure.
– Shear bands and non-homogeneous material deformation.
– Testing and standards in the construction industry.
– Ultra-high performance concrete and its compressive strength.
– References and additional resources related to compressive strength.

In mechanics, compressive strength (or compression strength) is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size (as opposed to tensile strength which withstands loads tending to elongate). In other words, compressive strength resists compression (being pushed together), whereas tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart). In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently.

Measuring the compressive strength of a steel drum

Some materials fracture at their compressive strength limit; others deform irreversibly, so a given amount of deformation may be considered as the limit for compressive load. Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures.

Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing machine. Measurements of compressive strength are affected by the specific test method and conditions of measurement. Compressive strengths are usually reported in relationship to a specific technical standard.

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