Term: Binder (material)

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– Classification:
– Binders classified as organic (bitums, animal and plant glues, polymers) and inorganic (lime, cement, gypsum, liquid glass, etc.)
– Binders can be metallic or ceramic, or polymeric based on the main material
– Examples include WC-Co (Tungsten Carbide) with Co as the binding agent for WC particles
– Classification by chemical resistance: non-hydraulic (gypsum, air-cements, magnesia), hydraulic (Roman cement, portland cement), acid-resistant (silicon fluoride cement, quartz cement), and autoclavable (harden at 170 to 300°С)
– Autoclavable binders include materials like CaSiO3

– Physical properties:
– Cement has high compressive strength but low tensile strength
– Cement needs reinforcement with fibrous material or rebar for tension and shear forces
– Resins may be tough and elastic but cannot bear compressive or tensile force
– Tensile strength improved in composite materials with resin as the matrix and fiber as reinforcement
– Compressive strength enhanced by adding filling material

– Uses:
– Binders hold pigments and filling material for paints, pastels, etc.
– Materials like wax, linseed oil, natural gums, methyl cellulose, proteins used in artistic and utilitarian painting
– Glue traditionally made from boiling hoofs, bones, or skin of animals
– Dry substance added to liquid binders for sculptures and reliefs
– Edible thickening agents like tapioca flour used as binders in cooking

– History:
– In the Classical World, painters used egg, wax, honey, lime, etc., as binders for pigment
– Egg-based tempera popular in Europe from the Middle Ages to the early 16th century
– Oil became the preferred binder for paint since the early 16th century

– See also:
– Binder and binding agent entries in Wiktionary
– Disambiguation page for “Binder”
– References to jewelry concepts, sculpture techniques, Greek and Roman sculpture, pop sculpture, etc.

Binder (material) (Wikipedia)

A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.

More narrowly, binders are liquid or dough-like substances that harden by a chemical or physical process and bind fibres, filler powder and other particles added into it. Examples include glue, adhesive and thickening.

Examples of mechanical binders are bond stones in masonry and tie beams in timber framing.

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