Term: Sporosarcina pasteurii – Wikipedia

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**Physiology of Sporosarcina pasteurii:**
– Gram-positive bacterium with rod-like shape.
– Forms endospores for survival.
– Dimensions range from 0.5-1.2 microns in width and 1.3-4.0 microns in length.
– Thrives in pH 9-10 environments, surviving up to pH 11.2.
– Alkaliphilic nature allows survival in basic conditions.

**Metabolism and Growth of Sporosarcina pasteurii:**
– Soil-borne facultative anaerobes.
– Require urea and ammonium for growth.
– Urease enzyme hydrolyzes urea to carbonate and ammonia.
– Optimal growth temperature is 30°C.
– Halotolerant, can grow in low chloride concentrations.

**Genomic Properties of Sporosarcina pasteurii:**
– Whole genome of S. pasteurii NCTC4822 has a 3.3 Mb chromosome.
– Contains 3,036 protein coding genes with 39.17% GC content.
– High ratios of transport, metabolism, and transcription genes.
– Seven identified genes related to urease activity.
– Potential for industrial applications with optimized urease production.

**Applications of Sporosarcina pasteurii in MICP:**
– Hydrolyzes urea to produce carbonate ions.
– Precipitates calcium carbonate in calcite-rich environments.
– Serves as nucleation sites for MICP due to negative surface charge.
– Highly negative zeta potential facilitates mineral formation.
– Limitations include engineering scale-up challenges and growth dependencies.

**Current and Potential Applications of Sporosarcina pasteurii:**
– Used in bio self-healing of concrete for repairing micro cracks.
– Improves construction materials like concrete and mortar.
– Environmentally-friendly method for crack repair.
– Enhances concrete durability and compressive strength.
– Limitation in anaerobic synthesis of urease affecting MICP.

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