Term: Units of textile measurement

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**Fiber Measurement Units:**
– Denier and tex measure linear mass density of fibers.
– Super S number indicates the fineness of wool fiber.
– Worsted count, woolen count, and cotton count are used for specific fibers.
– Yield is the reciprocal of denier and tex, expressed in yards per pound.
– Micronaire measures air permeability of cotton fiber.
– Micronaire indicates cotton fineness and maturity.
– Micron influences cotton processing.
– Micron is one millionth of a meter, used in textile fibers.
– Slivers, tops, and rovings are terms in the worsted process.
– Linear density is quantified using units like tex, denier, dtex, and ECC.

**Yarn Measurement and Calculation:**
– Linear density is presented in direct and indirect systems.
– Different yarn counts like NeK, NeL, and NeS represent specific linear density measurements.
– Denier System: 1 denier = 1 g / 9,000 m = 0.11mg/m.
– Yarn length calculation formula: /m = 1693 × /Nec × /kg.
– Defined length units: Bundle, Thread, Lea, Hank, Spyndle.
– Importance of yarn length in textile production.

**Fabric Measurement and Characteristics:**
– Fabric weight measured in GSM (grams per square meter).
– GSM is a critical parameter for textile products.
– Thicker fabric construction with higher GSM.
– Momme as a unit to measure silk fabric weight.
– Relationship between momme weight, durability, and opacity.
– Thread count measures fabric coarseness or fineness.

**Woven Fabric Parameters:**
– Ends per inch (EPI) measures warp threads per inch.
– Higher EPI indicates finer fabric.
– Picks per inch (PPI) measures weft threads per inch.
– Higher PPI signifies finer fabric.
– Courses and wales affect fabric tightness and quality.

**Fabric Air Permeability and Standards:**
– Air permeability measures air passage through fabric.
– Factors affecting air permeability include porosity and yarn characteristics.
– Air permeability standards exist for various industries.
– Air permeability is crucial for designing specific fabric types.

Textile fibers, threads, yarns and fabrics are measured in a multiplicity of units.

  • A fiber, a single filament of natural material, such as cotton, linen or wool, or artificial material such as nylon, polyester, metal or mineral fiber, or human-made cellulosic fibre like viscose, Modal, Lyocell or other rayon fiber is measured in terms of linear mass density, the weight of a given length of fiber. Various units are used to refer to the measurement of a fiber, such as: the denier and tex (linear mass density of fibers), super S (fineness of wool fiber), worsted count, woolen count, linen count (wet spun) (or Number English (Ne)), cotton count (or Number English (Ne)), Number metric (Nm) and yield (the reciprocal of denier and tex).
  • A yarn, a spun agglomeration of fibers used for knitting, weaving or sewing, is measured in terms of cotton count and yarn density.
    Thread made from two threads plied together, each consisting of three yarns
  • Thread, usually consisting of multiple yarns plied together producing a long, thin strand used in sewing or weaving, is measured in the same units as yarn.
  • Fabric, material typically produced by weaving, knitting or knotting textile fibers, yarns or threads, is measured in units such as the momme, thread count (a measure of the coarseness or fineness of fabric), ends per inch (e.p.i) and picks per inch (p.p.i).

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