Term: Ultimate tensile strength

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**Group 1: Definition and Characteristics of Ultimate Tensile Strength**
– Ultimate tensile strength is an intensive property.
– The value is independent of specimen size but may vary due to factors like specimen preparation and temperature.
– Materials exhibit either brittle or ductile failure.
– Tensile strength is a stress measured as force per unit area.
– Units include pascals, megapascals, newtons per square meter, pounds per square inch, and kilopounds per square inch.
– Ductile materials like steel show linear elastic behavior up to the yield point.
– Beyond the yield point, plastic deformation occurs, along with strain hardening and necking.

**Group 2: Testing and Application of Ultimate Tensile Strength**
– Tensile testing involves pulling a sample until it breaks.
– Indentation hardness correlates with tensile strength in metals.
– The correlation aids in nondestructive testing of bulk metal deliveries.
– Tensile testing helps in quality assurance in metalworking industries and extends beyond the laboratory using portable equipment.
– Ultimate tensile strength is crucial for designing brittle material members and for quality control in various industries.

**Group 3: Materials and Their Typical Tensile Strengths**
– Steel variants like ASTM A36 have different yield and ultimate tensile strengths.
– Acrylic, ABS, and polypropylene have varying tensile strength ranges.
– Materials like aluminium alloy and copper display specific tensile strength values.
– Composites like S-Glass epoxy show high tensile strengths.
– Natural materials like bamboo fiber and spider silk have unique tensile strength properties.
– Specific materials like UHMWPE, Vectran, Polybenzoxazole, wood, bone, nylon, epoxy adhesive, rubber, and silicon have specific tensile strength values and densities.

**Group 4: Specific Materials and Their Tensile Strength Ranges**
– UHMWPE fibers known as Dyneema or Spectra have a tensile strength range of 2,300–3,500 MPa.
– Vectran has a tensile strength range of 2,850–3,340 MPa.
– Polybenzoxazole (Zylon) has a tensile strength of 2,700 MPa and a specific strength of 1.56.
– Wood, pine (parallel to grain) has a tensile strength range of 104–121 MPa.
– Bone (limb) has a tensile strength of 130 MPa.
– Nylon, molded, 6PLA/6M, has a tensile strength range of 75-85 MPa.
– Nylon fiber, drawn, has a tensile strength of 900 MPa.
– Epoxy adhesive has a tensile strength range of 12–30 MPa.
– Rubber has a tensile strength of Boron at 3,100 MPa.
– Silicon, monocrystalline (m-Si), has a tensile strength of 7,000 MPa.

**Group 5: References**
– Giancoli, Douglas. Physics for Scientists & Engineers Third Edition (2000). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
– Köhler T, Vollrath F (1995). Thread biomechanics in the two orb-weaving spiders Araneus diadematus (Araneae, Araneidae) and Uloboris walckenaerius (Araneae, Uloboridae). Journal of Experimental Zoology. 271: 1–17. doi:10.1002/jez.1402710102.
– T Follett. Life without metals.
– Min-Feng Y, Lourie O, Dyer MJ, Moloni K, Kelly TF, Ruoff RS (2000). Strength and Breaking Mechanism of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Under Tensile Load (PDF). Science. 287 (5453): 637–640. Bibcode:2000Sci…287..637Y. doi:10.1126/science.287.5453.637. PMID10649994. S2CID10758240. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011.

Ultimate tensile strength (also called UTS, tensile strength, TS, ultimate strength or in notation) is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In brittle materials, the ultimate tensile strength is close to the yield point, whereas in ductile materials, the ultimate tensile strength can be higher.

Two vises apply tension to a specimen by pulling at it, stretching the specimen until it fractures. The maximum stress it withstands before fracturing is its ultimate tensile strength.

The ultimate tensile strength is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the engineering stress versus strain. The highest point of the stress–strain curve is the ultimate tensile strength and has units of stress. The equivalent point for the case of compression, instead of tension, is called the compressive strength.

Tensile strengths are rarely of any consequence in the design of ductile members, but they are important with brittle members. They are tabulated for common materials such as alloys, composite materials, ceramics, plastics, and wood.

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