Term: Fracture

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**Fracture Strength Parameters:**
Ultimate tensile strength
– Yield strength
– Proportional limit stress
– Offset strain (typically 0.2%)
– Fracture strength

**Types of Fracture:**
– Brittle fracture
– No plastic deformation before fracture
– Little energy absorption
– Continues even when loading stops
– Can occur by cleavage in crystalline materials
– Ductile fracture
– Extensive plastic deformation before fracture
– Rupture and ductile rupture in tension
– Crack propagates slowly due to energy absorption

**Characteristics and Testing for Fracture:**
– Ductile fracture involves slow crack movement with significant plastic deformation.
– Brittle fracture spreads rapidly with minimal plastic deformation.
– Testing techniques include fracture toughness ((K_c)), three-point flexural test, and compact tension test.
– Notch sharpening and fatigue crack induction are crucial for accurate crack length measurement.

**Materials and Fracture Behavior:**
– Ceramics have high strength and perform well at high temperatures.
– Ceramics exhibit low toughness compared to metals.
– Crack deflection around second phase particles can improve fracture toughness in ceramics.
– The Fiber Bundle Model aids in understanding composite material strength.

**Fracture Mechanics Applications and Studies:**
– Disasters caused by fracture in engineered structures.
– Boundary Integral Equation Method for solving stresses, strains, and displacements.
– Traditional and advanced methods in computational fracture mechanics.
– References and further reading materials for in-depth study.

Fracture (Wikipedia)

Fracture is the appearance of a crack or complete separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. The fracture of a solid usually occurs due to the development of certain displacement discontinuity surfaces within the solid. If a displacement develops perpendicular to the surface, it is called a normal tensile crack or simply a crack; if a displacement develops tangentially, it is called a shear crack, slip band, or dislocation.

Ductile failure of a metallic specimen strained axially

Brittle fractures occur without any apparent deformation before fracture. Ductile fractures occur after visible deformation. Fracture strength, or breaking strength, is the stress when a specimen fails or fractures. The detailed understanding of how a fracture occurs and develops in materials is the object of fracture mechanics.

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