Term: Rubble masonry

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– Square Rubble Masonry:
– Stones are dressed before laying in mortar.
– Forms the outer surface of a wall.

– History:
– Irregular rubble masonry evolved from embankments covered with boards, stones, or bricks.
– Sadd el-Khafara dam in Egypt, dating back to 2900 – 2600 BC, is an example.
– Greeks used emplekton in the construction of defensive walls.
– Romans called it opus caementicium and extensively used it.
– Modern construction often uses cast concrete with internal steel reinforcement.

– See Also:
– Snecked masonry is made of mixed sizes of stone in regular courses.
– Wattle and daub is conceptually analogous to rubble within ashlar.

– Gallery:
– Wall at Grave Circle A, Mycenae, Greece, 16th century BCE.
– Rubble masonry core of Alai Minar in the Qutb complex, India, c.1316 CE.

– References:
– “A Dictionary of Architecture” by Fleming, Honour, & Pevsner.
– “Rubble masonry” in Encyclopaedia Britannica.
– “Advanced dam engineering for design, construction, and rehabilitation” by Robert B. Jansen.
– “Emplekton Masonry and Greek Structural” by RA Tomlinson.
– “Ancient Greek fortifications 500-300 BC” by Nic Fields & Brian Delf.

Rubble masonry (Wikipedia)

Rubble masonry or rubble stone is rough, uneven building stone not laid in regular courses. It may fill the core of a wall which is faced with unit masonry such as brick or ashlar. Some medieval cathedral walls have outer shells of ashlar with an inner backfill of mortarless rubble and dirt.

Section of wall faced with dressed stone (ashlar) with rubble masonry fill

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