Term: Mineral hydration

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– Minerals hydrate through conversion of oxides to double hydroxides.
Water molecules can be directly incorporated into the crystalline structure of a new mineral.
– Examples include hydration of feldspars to clay minerals, garnet to chlorite, or kyanite to muscovite.
– Mineral hydration in regolith converts silicate minerals into clay minerals.
– Some mineral structures like montmorillonite can hold varying amounts of water without altering their structure.

Hydraulic Binders:
– Hydration is crucial for hydraulic binders like Portland cement to develop strength.
– Hydraulic binders can set and harden submerged in water by forming insoluble products.
– The term hydraulicity indicates the chemical affinity of the hydration reaction.
– Examples of hydraulic binders include hydromagnesite, ikaite, and talc.
– Hydroxysulfides like tochilinite, a mineral of iron(II) and magnesium, are also formed through hydration.

Hydrated Minerals:
– Hydrated minerals encompass both silicates and nonsilicates.
– Phyllosilicates (clay minerals) are common weathering products of rocks.
– Nonsilicate hydrated minerals include oxides like brucite and goethite.
– Formation of hydrated minerals, especially clay minerals, is rapid in environments with rock and water.
– Meteorites contain hydrated minerals like hydromagnesite and tochilinite.

Research and Citations:
– Studies on hydrated minerals are crucial in various fields like petrology and geochemistry.
– Hydrated minerals like clay minerals form easily in the presence of anhydrous rock and water.
– Citations and references from scientific literature provide valuable insights into mineral hydration.
– Research on hydrated minerals also extends to meteorites and their mineral compositions.
– Understanding the petrogenesis and classification of hydrated minerals is essential for geological studies.

Mineral hydration (Wikipedia)

In inorganic chemistry, mineral hydration is a reaction which adds water to the crystal structure of a mineral, usually creating a new mineral, commonly called a hydrate.

In geological terms, the process of mineral hydration is known as retrograde alteration and is a process occurring in retrograde metamorphism. It commonly accompanies metasomatism and is often a feature of wall rock alteration around ore bodies. Hydration of minerals occurs generally in concert with hydrothermal circulation which may be driven by tectonic or igneous activity.

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