Term: Hydration reaction

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– **Organic Chemistry**
– Any unsaturated organic compound is susceptible to hydration.
– **Epoxides to Glycol**
– Several million tons of ethylene glycol are produced annually by the hydration of oxirane, a cyclic compound also known as ethylene oxide.
– Acid catalysts are typically used.
– **Alkenes**
– The general chemical equation for the hydration of alkenes involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (OH) to one carbon of the double bond and a proton (H) to the other.
– The reaction is highly exothermic and follows Markovnikov’s rule.
– **Alkynes**
– Acetylene hydrates to give acetaldehyde using mercury catalysts.
– **Aldehydes and Ketones**
– Aldehydes and ketones hydrate to geminal diols, with formaldehyde being significantly present as dihydroxymethane in the presence of water.
– **Nitriles**
– Nitriles are susceptible to hydration to form amides, with the reaction requiring catalysts.
– Enzymes are used for the commercial production of acrylamide from acrylonitrile.
– **Inorganic and Materials Chemistry**
– Hydration is crucial in various applications, such as the production of Portland cement and the functioning of desiccants.
– CuSO4·5H2O is bright blue with a different structure from its anhydrous form.
– **See Also**
– Aquation
– **References**
– Falbe, Jürgen; Bahrmann, Helmut; Lipps, Wolfgang; Mayer, Dieter. Alcohols, Aliphatic.
– Siegfried Rebsdat; Dieter Mayer. Ethylene Glycol.
– Marc Eckert, Gerald Fleischmann, Reinhard Jira, Hermann M. Bolt, Klaus Golka Acetaldehyde in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
– Banerjee, A.; Sharma, R.; Banerjee, U. (2002). RETRACTED ARTICLE: The nitrile-degrading enzymes: Current status and future prospects. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Hydration reaction (Wikipedia)

In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water. In organic chemistry, water is added to an unsaturated substrate, which is usually an alkene or an alkyne. This type of reaction is employed industrially to produce ethanol, isopropanol, and butan-2-ol.

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