Term: Young’s modulus

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**Young’s Modulus Overview:**
– Young’s modulus quantifies the relationship between stress and axial strain in a material.
– It is commonly measured in gigapascals in the SI system.
– Young’s modulus predicts dimensional changes under tensile or compressive loads.
– It applies to uniaxial stress situations.
– Young’s modulus represents the coefficient of proportionality in Hookes law.
– A higher modulus requires more stress for the same strain.
– Examples include rubber (low Young’s modulus) and aluminum (high Young’s modulus).

**Elasticity and Related Properties:**
– Elastic deformation is reversible in solid materials.
– Hookes law describes the linear relationship between stress and strain.
– Strength is the maximum stress a material can withstand in the elastic regime.
– Material stiffness differs from strength, geometric stiffness, hardness, and toughness.
– Geometric stiffness depends on the shape of the body.
– Hardness is the resistance to penetration, while toughness is the energy absorption capacity.

**Material Behavior and Characteristics:**
– Young’s modulus is the proportionality factor in Hookes law.
– Materials exhibit linear behavior within a certain stress range.
– Non-linear materials like rubber show linear behavior under low stresses.
– Young’s modulus varies in different orientations of a material.
– Anisotropic materials have varying modulus based on force direction.
– Young’s modulus of metals changes with temperature.

**Calculations and Applications:**
– Young’s modulus can calculate the force exerted under specific strain.
– The force formula involves modulus, area, initial length, and change in length.
– Elastic potential energy in linear elastic material is given by integral of Hookes law.
– Elastic potential energy density per unit volume is E*ΔL^2 / (2L0^2).
– Young’s modulus values are crucial for material selection in engineering applications.

**Materials and Case Studies:**
– Approximate Young’s modulus values for various materials are provided.
– Materials like aluminum, aramid, carbon fiber, and steel have different Young’s modulus values.
– Young’s modulus values range from 0.001 to 140 GPa across different materials.
– Specific case studies include carbon nitride thin films, epoxy matrix composites, and biomaterials for bone disorders.
– Various sources like Unit of Measure Converter and MatWeb provide data on materials properties.

Young's modulus (Wikipedia)

Young's modulus (or Young modulus) is a mechanical property of solid materials that measures the tensile or compressive stiffness when the force is applied lengthwise. It is the modulus of elasticity for tension or axial compression. Young's modulus is defined as the ratio of the stress (force per unit area) applied to the object and the resulting axial strain (displacement or deformation) in the linear elastic region of the material.

Young's modulus is the slope of the linear part of the stress–strain curve for a material under tension or compression.

Although Young's modulus is named after the 19th-century British scientist Thomas Young, the concept was developed in 1727 by Leonhard Euler. The first experiments that used the concept of Young's modulus in its modern form were performed by the Italian scientist Giordano Riccati in 1782, pre-dating Young's work by 25 years. The term modulus is derived from the Latin root term modus which means measure.

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