Term: Sucrose

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**1. Properties and Synthesis of Sucrose:**
– Coined in 1857 from French sucre and -ose suffix
– Abbreviated as Suc in scientific literature
Glucose and fructose linked via an ether bond
– Crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2
– Purity measured by polarimetry, specific rotation at 20°C is +66.47°
– Biosynthesis via precursors UDP-glucose and fructose 6-phosphate
– End product of photosynthesis
– Naturally found in many food plants
– Chemical synthesis achieved in 1953 by Lemieux and Huber

**2. Production and History of Sucrose:**
– Table sugar dates back to ancient India and China
– Sugar production expanded in Europe post-Crusades
– Mechanization began in the late 18th century
– Beet-sugar industry flourished during the Napoleonic Wars
– Indians discovered sugar crystallization during the Gupta dynasty
– Sugar trade influenced ethnic mixes
– Steam engine powered the first sugar mill in Jamaica in 1768

**3. Types, Sources, and Consumption of Sucrose:**
– Present in plants, roots, fruits, and nectars
– Energy storage from photosynthesis
– Industrialization increased refinement in processed foods
– India and Brazil were major producers in mid-2018
– Beet sugar comes from cooler regions
– High-fructose corn syrup partially replaced sucrose in the US
– Sucrose is a major element in confectionery and desserts

**4. Nutritional Information and Metabolism of Sucrose:**
– 99.9% sucrose, providing only carbohydrates
– Contains 390 kilocalories per 100g serving
– Broken down into glucose and fructose in humans
– Excessive consumption can lead to health issues
– Linked to metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes
– Tooth decay associated with sugar consumption

**5. Trade, Prices, and International Market Trends:**
– Worldwide sugar production was 185 million tonnes in 2017
– India, EU, and China were leading consumers in 2018
– Beet sugar from cooler regions
– World market sugar futures prices currently strong
– G20 countries advocate for fairer prices
– WTO ruled against EU sugar regime in 2004

Sucrose (Wikipedia)

Sucrose, a disaccharide, is a sugar composed of glucose and fructose subunits. It is produced naturally in plants and is the main constituent of white sugar. It has the molecular formula C

Haworth projection of sucrose
Ball-and-stick model of sucrose
IUPAC name
β-D-Fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside
Systematic IUPAC name
Other names
  • Sugar;
  • Saccharose;
  • α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-fructofuranoside;
  • β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-α-D-glucopyranoside;
  • β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranosyl-α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranoside;
  • α-(1R,2R,3S,4S,5R)-glucopyranosyl-β-(2S,3S,4S,5R)-fructofuranoside;
  • Dodecacarbon monodecahydrate;
  • ((2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxapent-2-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxahexane-3,4,5-triol)
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.304 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 200-334-9
RTECS number
  • WN6500000
  • InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-4-6(16)8(18)9(19)11(21-4)23-12(3-15)10(20)7(17)5(2-14)22-12/h4-11,13-20H,1-3H2/t4-,5-,6-,7-,8+,9-,10+,11-,12+/m1/s1 checkY
  • InChI=1/C12H22O11/c13-1-4-6(16)8(18)9(264115619)11(21-4)23-12(3-15)10(20)7(17)5(2-14)22-12/h4-11,13-20H,1-3H2/t4-,5-,6-,7-,8+,9-,10+,11-,12+/m1/s1
  • O1[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[C@@]2(O[C@@H]([C@@H](O)[C@@H]2O)CO)CO
Molar mass 342.30 g/mol
Appearance white solid
Density 1.587 g/cm3 (0.0573 lb/cu in), solid
Melting point None; decomposes at 186 °C (367 °F; 459 K)
~200 g/dL (25 °C (77 °F))
log P −3.76
−2,226.1 kJ/mol (−532.1 kcal/mol)
1,349.6 kcal/mol (5,647 kJ/mol) (Higher heating value)
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g. sodium chlorideFlammability 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g. canola oilInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
29700 mg/kg (oral, rat)
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)
REL (Recommended)
TWA 10 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 1507
Related compounds
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

For human consumption, sucrose is extracted and refined from either sugarcane or sugar beet. Sugar mills – typically located in tropical regions near where sugarcane is grown – crush the cane and produce raw sugar which is shipped to other factories for refining into pure sucrose. Sugar beet factories are located in temperate climates where the beet is grown, and process the beets directly into refined sugar. The sugar-refining process involves washing the raw sugar crystals before dissolving them into a sugar syrup which is filtered and then passed over carbon to remove any residual colour. The sugar syrup is then concentrated by boiling under a vacuum and crystallized as the final purification process to produce crystals of pure sucrose that are clear, odorless, and sweet.

Sugar is often an added ingredient in food production and recipes. About 185 million tonnes of sugar were produced worldwide in 2017.

Sucrose is particularly dangerous as a risk factor for tooth decay because Streptococcus mutans bacteria convert it into a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide that allows them to cohere, forming plaque. Sucrose is the only sugar that bacteria can use to form this sticky polysaccharide.

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