Term: Building

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Definition and History of Buildings
– A building is a structure with a roof and walls, standing permanently in one place.
– Buildings can include fences or walls.
– Buildings differ from architecture in excluding artistic treatment.
– Structural height refers to the highest architectural detail on the building from street level.
– Low-rise buildings are generally considered to have three stories or less.
– Homebuilding dates back to around 18,000 BC.
– Buildings became common during the Neolithic period.
– The history of architecture is closely linked to the development of buildings.
– Architectural styles have evolved over time.
– Different civilizations have contributed to the architectural heritage.

Types of Buildings
– Residential buildings include houses, apartments, and condominiums.
– Commercial buildings house businesses such as stores, restaurants, and hotels.
– Industrial buildings are used for heavy industries like manufacturing.
– Agricultural buildings, such as barns, are found on farms.
– Some buildings have mixed-use, combining commercial and residential spaces.
– Single-family residential buildings are commonly referred to as houses.
– Multi-family residential buildings include duplexes, apartment buildings, and condominiums.
– Hotels can also be classified as residential buildings, especially extended-stay hotels.

Creation and Ownership of Buildings
– Designing, constructing, and operating buildings involve various professionals and trades.
– Collaboration is essential in the building process.
– The creation of buildings requires expertise in architecture, engineering, and construction.
– Building codes and regulations ensure safety and compliance.
– Sustainable planning and building practices are increasingly prioritized.
– Real estate developers secure funding for the project.
– Financial institutions or investors provide funding.
– Mortgage loans are commonly used for ownership and funding.

Environmental Impact of Buildings
– Buildings account for 37% of global energy use and CO2 emissions.
– Global CO2 emissions from building materials manufacturing are 39%.
– Without new construction technologies, emissions could double by 2050.
– All-glass buildings contribute to climate change due to energy inefficiency.
– Existing buildings are responsible for 40% of global energy consumption.
– The production of building materials, such as steel and glass, contributes to carbon emissions and resource depletion.
– Sustainable alternatives to traditional building materials can help reduce environmental impact.
– Construction waste generated from building projects contributes to landfill pollution and resource wastage.

Building Services, Damage, and Resilience
– Physical plant infrastructure includes heating, cooling, power, and telecommunications.
– Commercial buildings have complex systems requiring regular maintenance.
– Conveying systems include elevators, escalators, and moving sidewalks.
– Skyways and underground cities transport people between interconnected buildings.
– Buildings may be damaged during construction or maintenance.
– Accidents, storms, explosions, and subsidence can cause damage.
– Fire damage and flooding are common risks.
– Lack of maintenance or improper alterations can lead to dilapidation.
– Mining, water withdrawal, and poor foundations can cause damage.
– Monitoring technologies and assessment methods help control and mitigate building damage.
– Building resilience involves designing structures that can withstand and recover from natural disasters.
– Bioclimatic design principles and sustainable architecture promote energy efficiency and environmental harmony.

Building (Wikipedia)

A building or edifice is an enclosed structure with a roof and walls, usually standing permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for numerous factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, prestige, and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the concept, see Nonbuilding structure for contrast.

Buildings serve several societal needs – occupancy, primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical separation of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) from the outside (a place that may be harsh and harmful at times).

Ever since the first cave paintings, buildings have been objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings and other structures, usually green buildings.


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