Term: Abrasion (mechanical)

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**Historical Use of Abrasion in Stone Shaping:**
– Ancient artists utilized abrasion techniques to sculpt dense stones like carbonite and emery.
– Different sizes and shapes of abrasives were employed for desired effects.
Water was used to carry away particles during the abrasive process.
– The method was time-consuming but resulted in intricate works of art.

**Modeling Abrasion with Archard Equation:**
– The Archard equation describes sliding wear based on asperity contact.
– It incorporates parameters like wear coefficient, normal load, sliding distance, and hardness.
– The wear coefficient (K) is influenced by factors such as surface quality and chemical affinity.
– This model aids in predicting wear debris production and understanding wear behavior in various materials.

**Testing and Enhancing Abrasion Resistance:**
– Various test methods are employed to measure materials’ resistance to abrasion.
– Standardized measurements produce abrasion rates and normalized abrasion rates.
– The abrasion scrub tester is utilized to determine abrasion rates accurately.
– Proper lubricants and abrasion-resistant materials can help control and improve abrasion resistance.

**Standards for Abrasion Testing (ASTM, ISO, JSA):**
– ASTM provides a range of test methods for measuring abrasion resistance in materials like cemented carbides and coatings.
– ISO standards focus on determining wear resistance in plastics and hardmetals.
– JSA standards test abrasion resistance in rubber and coarse aggregates.
– These international standards ensure quality, reliability, and consistency in abrasion testing across industries.

**Key Texts and Further Reading:**
– ‘Wear Processes in Manufacturing’ by Badahur and Magee is a key resource on abrasion and wear.
– ASTM STP 1362, 1999, provides valuable insights into abrasion testing.
– Additional reading materials can be found at the provided Wikipedia link for in-depth knowledge on materials degradation and tribology.

Abrasion is the process of scuffing, scratching, wearing down, marring, or rubbing away. It can be intentionally imposed in a controlled process using an abrasive. Abrasion can be an undesirable effect of exposure to normal use or exposure to the elements.

Surface roughness resulting from abrasion wear on a spindle.

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